Natural Help for EBV - Colostrum

According to the National Institute for health, EBV (Epstein-Barr Virus) infects about 95% of the global population, so if you have EBV you have a lot of company. EBV is most well known as being the cause of mononucleosis. After infection with EBV, the virus remains latent in the individual for life, and may become active at any time. EBV is one of the suspected causes of chronic fatigue. As with any infection a strong immune system is the first line of defense, and nature in her infinite wisdom, has provided a natural substance to strengthen and balance the immune system of all newborn mammals, colostrum. Colostrum is the first meal of all mammals, and it works for adults as well as for the newborn. Colostrum for human supplementation is harvested from dairy cows after the calves have all they need. Only colostrum harvested early after calving provides all the benefit that colostrum is designed to. Highest quality colostrum harvested within six hours post calving can be ordered online at www.synertekcolostrum.com or www.firstmilking.com.
Scientific Commentary, Colostrum, Immunity, and EBV

"Colostrum contains leukocytes, lactoferrin, lysozyme, and all of the immunoglobulins: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. These components together combat bacteria, viruses, and yeast. Colostrum contains cytokines, lymphokines, and proline-rich polypeptides. These components work together to initiate the immune response, and regulate the intensity and duration of it... Without optimal immune protection we are susceptible to conditions ranging from the common cold, the flu, various stages of immune deficiency, cancer and even AIDS." (Beth Ley, PhD, COLOSTRUM: Nature’s Gift to the Immune System)

"Bovine colostrum is biologically transferable to all mammals, including humans. It is much higher in immune factors than human mother’s colostrum. Laboratory analyses of immune and growth factors from bovine colostrum are identical to those found in human colostrum, except that the levels of these factors are significantly higher in the bovine version... Immunoglobulins (A, D, E, G, and M) are the most abundant of the immune factors found in colostrum. IgG neutralizes toxins and microbes in the lymph and circulatory system. IgM destroys bacteria, while IgE and EgD are highly antiviral." (Dr. Zoltan Rona, American Journal of Natural Medicine)

"Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) is believed to be caused by the Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), the same virus that causes mononucleosis. EBV is a member of the herpes family and is related to the viruses that cause genital herpes and shingles. The virus causes an over-reaction of the immune system. The immune system becomes so overburdened the result is immunity "burnout." The result is a feeling of complete exhaustion. Individuals with EBV require a comprehensive restorative program for the immune system. And what is better than colostrum and lactoferrin (a component of colostrum) to activate, regulate and balance the immune system?" (Colostrum, Nature's Gift to the Immune System, Beth Ley, PhD Nutrition)

"In addition to the Epstein-Barr Virus, there are many other factors which may cause chronic fatigue. For example, allergies may cause chronic fatigue. Colostrum is an immune system modulator that tones down an over active immune system (as well as stimulating an under active immune system). "PRP (proline-rich polypeptides) from colostrum can work as a regulatory substance of the thymus gland. It (PRP) has been demonstrated to improve or eliminate symptomatology of both allergies and autoimmune diseases (MS, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, myasthenia gravis). PRP inhibits the overproduction of lymphocytes and T-cells and reduces the major symptoms of allergies and autoimmune disease...." (The American Journal of Natural Medicine, March 1998, Zoltan Rona, MD)

"As mentioned earlier, because of chronic fatigue's uncertain and various casual factors, a substance such as colostrum, which may contain literally dozens of disease-specific agents, could be the most effective in treatments for the syndrome." (Colostrum, Amazing Immune System Enhancer, Hawken)

"Without optimal immune protection we are susceptible to conditions ranging from the common cold, the flu, various stages of immune deficiency, cancer and even AIDS." (Ley)

 

Testimonials

"I have been taking Synertek Colostrum for 9 months. I began taking the supplement for symptoms of EBV, including fatigue, headaches, anxiety, etc. Since taking 3 lozenges per day, I have noticed a decrease in all of these symptoms and in addition have experienced a decrease in sinus allergies, improved stamina, and lean muscle mass gain. I am a professional dancer, teacher, and choreographer who teaches at 3 campuses for a prominent university. The nature of my work demands optimum physical health and stamina, and the effects of EBV were curbing my abilities and passion for dance. I am very grateful for having found this amazing product and have recommended it to many of my dance affiliates. Many thanks....." -- Victoria McGuigan, MEd., Philadelphia, PA

"I've now been taking Colostrum into my third month. As I mentioned recently, my E/B virus went into remission just in time after taking Colostrum for about two months." -- Dan Stoneman, Nashville TN

"Same prompt delivery as usual, great service, great product. I have EBV/CFS and your product is helping me 100%. Thank you." -- Pat Kimich, UK

 

Immunity Research Using Synertek Colostrum

Bovine Colostrum: its dietary supplementation role in improvement and modulation of human immune indices

Sherif S. Ragab* and Effat A. A. Afifi**

*Nutrition and Food Science Department; Home Economics Faculty; Minufiya University

**Food Hygiene Department; National Institute of Nutrition

Abstract

Oral ingestion of bovine colostrum lozenges in student subjects was shown to be effective in improvement and modulation of humoral and cell-mediated immune indices during the feeding (two weeks) and post-feeding (two weeks) durations. Serum immunoglobulins IgG, IgM and IgA, and measured parameters of humoral immunity and T-lymphocytes CD4 and CD8 and measured parameters of cell-mediated immunity in all examined human subjects were significantly influenced by oral supplementation of bovine colostrum lozenges. There was a direct positive correlation between the daily-received colostrum dose and the observed influence on the titters of measured immunity indices. A daily dose of 400 mg bovine colostrum supplementation showed more improvement and increased effect on estimated parameters than a 200 mg daily dose, which indicates that the improvement and modulation roles of bovine colostrum supplementation on immunity status was carried out through a dose - dependant fashion. All of the student cases of this study were having low to moderate levels of all measured immunity indices, which improved and modulated significantly as a result of daily consumption of bovine colostrum supplement. Findings suggest the possible incorporation of bovine colostrum as a dietary supplement to provide immunity enhancement and modulation specially for human classes who suffer from shortage or auto -immune diseases, and in infant formulas to offer infants both clinical and nutritional benefits of this miracle natural food.

Introduction

Bovine colostrum is first milk secreted during the first few days after calving (Campbell & Petersen 1963; Brambell 1969; and Butler 1974). It has been historically concepted that bovine colostrum could be served as a human healthy food due to a lot of its nutritional and clinical importance (Lascelles 1963; Lamm et al.; 1978, Butler 1986, Larson 1992 and Quigley & Drewry 1998). It has long been recognized that breast colostrum feeding could offer a pronounced enhancement of passive immunity for humans primarily via transfer of lacteal specific and non-specific antibodies directly to the infants (Reddy et al.; 1988, Davidson 1996, and Korhonen 1998). Regular consumption of bovine colostrum has been reported as a protective role for infantile gastrointestinal immunity due to its direct effect on promoting and development of infantile gut-associated lymphoid tissues which responsible mainly for pronouncing the infantile gut immunity (Carbonare et al.; 1997, Kelly & Coutts 2000 and Korhonen et al.; 2000).

Bovine colostrum contains not only detectable levels of immunoglobulins far much higher (several hundred – fold) than ordinary bovine milk (Butler 1994 and Korhonen et al.; 1995); but also contain a series of physiologically bioactive constituents such as growth promoting factors that act as mediators of infantile growth and development (Reiter 1978; Donovan & Odle 1994 and Merro et al.; 1997) in addition to a series of antimicrobial fractions including lactoferrin; prostglandin; lactoperoxidase and lysozymes (Sánchez et al.; 1992, Levay & Viljion 1995; Lonnerdol & Lyer 1995 and Antonuis et al.; 2000).

The studies of Nord et al. (1990); Mitra et al.; (1995) and Warmy et al.; (1999) indicate the possible therapeutic and providing roles of orally ingested bovine colostrum in infants against many of bacterial and viral gastrointestinal infectious diseases until their own immunity system develop and mature.

This work was aimed to assess the possible supplementation role of bovine colostrum as lozenges of 200 and 400 mg daily doses in 40 student cases on the improvement and modulation of general systemic immunity status of studied cases.

Material and Methods

  1. Subjects: 40 healthy female students volunteers aged 17.5 to 19.4 years of Home Economics Faculty; Minufiya University were selected for this work. All of the subject cases are non smokers, without any historical serious diseases background who have not received any kind of therapeutic drugs or any other forms of food supplements during the course of this study (4 weeks) and at least six months before the work. All of the student subjects received full information about the research protocol before participation and with the approval and agreement of the Ethics Committee of the Faculty authorities.
  2. Protocol: Study subjects 40 students were divided into two regular groups (20 per each) A and B. group "A" were received 200 mg (Synertek) bovine colostrum lozenge daily. Whereas; group "B" received two lozenges i. e. 400 mg (Synertek) daily. The feeding duration was two successive weeks through a manner of daily ingestion of lozenges. The work duration was successive four weeks which divided into the following intervals:
    1. Pre-feeding (zero time): the day of starting colostrum receives.
    2. Feeding duration: the early 1st and 2nd weeks of colostrum supplementation.
    3. Post-feeding duration: the 3rd and 4th weeks after basal time. There is colostrum supplementation.
  3. Bovine colostrum: Supplied in form of chewable lozenges (100 lozenges per vial). According to the indication label this colostrum was harvested from selected grade A American dairies within the first six hours of calving. It is certified free from all forms of pathogens, drugs, heavy metals, and pesticides. It is widely available in the pharmaceutical markets as a natural food supplement not as a drug.
  4. Blood sampling: 5 blood samples (5 ml each) were taken from each student at each of the following intervals: basal time (immediately before receiving the first dose of bovine colostrum lozenges), at the end of the 1st and 2nd weeks of successive oral colostrum supplementation (feeding duration), and at the end of the 3rd and 4th weeks from the basal time (post feeding duration). Blood samples were taken from the antecubital vein of right arm, in EDTA-containing glass tube, and centrifuged (5000 rpm for 10 minutes) immediately to get serum, which was stored in plastic Eppendrof tube in deep freezer until the time of inspection.
  5. Serum analysis: Obtained serum samples at each interval for each student case were inspected for immunoglobulins IgG; IgM and IgA by the use the descried techniques Endoplate Single Radial Immunodifussion (RID) (Nerenberg & Prasad 1975) test kits. Whereas; T lymphocytes CD4 and CD8 were estimated by direct folow cytometric Immunoflourescence Specific Staining kit methods (Sabin et al.; 1994 and Vigali & Strominger 1994). The kits were supplied by Cymbus Biotechnology Ltd.; for design & Development and Production of Immunological Reagents- UK. All of used kits were purchased from Clini Lab Office; Maadi - Cairo (a local agent of Bechman Coulter Inc.; for Diagnostic kits and Reagent – USA).
  6. Statistical analysis: All results were treated by Student’s paired two-tailed t-test via Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) to produce F-statistic to detect the presence of a significant difference within the treatments. The level of significance was set at P> 0.05 (Statograph Program 1987).

Results and Discussion

Data presented in tables and figures (1, 2 and 3 ) show the responses of estimated serum IgG, IgM and IgA titers as affected by daily intake of bovine colostrum lozenges for two student groups. It is observed that there was a significant increase in estimated titer which dependent on the receiving dose. Student group who received daily dose of 400 mg of bovine colostrum had a significantly higher levels (P < 0.05) of estimated immunoglobulins more than the other studied group who received a daily dose of 200 mg of bovine colostrum . During the 3rd and 4th weeks (post-supplementation period) after completely stopping of daily receive of bovine colostrum lozenges, there was no significant difference (P> 0.05) in detected increase in all estimated immunoglobulin classes.

In respect of estimated lymphocytes groups (CD4 and CD8) as shown in tables and figures (4 and 5); also the level of bovine colostrum 400 mg was the most significant (P< 0.05) and potent effective dose which lead to increase the level of estimated lymphocyte classes. There was a continuos increase in estimated level of CD4 class till the end of the fourth week of this study (post-feeding). Whereas; CD8 class was undergo a gradual decline at the fourth week in case of student groups who received daily dose of bovine colostrum as 400 mg.

The most important finding of this work was that incidence of significant increase and improvement of all examined immunity parameters as affected by daily oral ingestion of supplementary bovine colostrum in the form of lozenges. Our estimated immunity parameters and indices have previously been shown to be associated with various effective functions of human immune system and general systemic body defense reactions (Petty & Todd 1993; Taylor et al.; 1994 and Sutterwala et al.; 1996). The observed increase in all investigated parameters was carried out in a dose –dependant linear manner with a significant correlation with the received daily dose of bovine colostrum. This finding is highly agree with that reported by Castrucci et al.; (1988), Tsunemitsu et al.; (1989) and Schller et al.; (1992), whose stated that oral ingestion of bovine colostrum could provide a significant protection for humans against viral gastrointestinal infections in animal models through a dose dependant – manner due to its high contents of immunoglobulins which present naturally in abundance level in addition to other natural antiviral constituents. In addition; Isaacson et al.; (1980), Snodgrass et al.; (1982) and Moon & Bunn (1993) reported also about the same attitude but in case of acute gastrointestinal infections caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli that could be removed completely with elimination of all the infection signs by regular consumption of bovine colostrum through a dose – dependant manner with a significant support of general human immunity.

The observed significant increase in serum immunoglobulins as direct benefits of bovine colostrum consumption could be refereed primarily to the high content of immunoglobulins present naturally in bovine colostrum, which ingested and represents an immunoglobulins exogenous feeding. Stephan et al.; (1990) and Zaremba et al.; (1993) concluded that most of bovine colostrum immunoglobulins and other biologically active constituents has the ability to withstand most of human gastric proteolytic enzymatic actions and therefore could be absorbed very effectively from intestine into blood stream to work as an exogenous non - specific ones and parallel with the human native immunoglobulins which of course lead to a detectable increase in the serum level of immunoglobulins. This finding suggest that part of the detected increases of serum immunoglobulins as affected by oral consumption of bovine colostrum are derived from consumed bovine colostrum.

Due to the high ability of IgG to resist all of acidic nature and gastric degradation of stomach enzymes more than other classes of immunoglobulins (Zinkernagal et al.; 1972, Goldmann 1993, Ross et al.; 1995, Kelly et al.; 1997 and Korhonen et al.; 2000), it could be explain why this class of estimated immunoglobulins was the most predominant and significantly increased due to colostrum supplementation.

On the other; the significant increase in serum immunoglobulins titer as affected by ingestion of bovine colostrum is that some of ingested bovine colostrum constituents could be digested into a biologically active fractions which acts as immunogens that promote the self human immunity system to produce and release its own native immunoglobulins. This finding is highly supported with that mentioned by Butler 1994 and Korhonen et al.; (1995) and (1998), whose stated and explained that most of digested bovine colostrum acts as a reactors to the immunity system and promote the releasing of self defense host immunoglobulins. Also; Lefranc – Millot et al.; (1996) added that most of colostrum proteins has a lot of biological benefits for humans not only to give nourishment to the offspring but also to provide an immune protection through the stimulation of releasing the reactive immunoglobulins which present an primary barer in humoral immune defense.

Transferring Growth Factor-B (TGF-B) which abundant naturally in bovine colostrum could serves actively in activation and stimulation of B lymphocytes to produce immunoglobulins specially IgG and IgA in addition to enhancement of transporting of polymeric IgA into intestinal lumen and therefore activate the immune responses of both intestine and other mucous membranes against pathogens and other environmental pollutants (Brown 1978 and McGee et al.; 1991). This finding support our suggestion about the possible role of active constituents present naturally and abundance in bovine colostrum could stimulate not only B- lymphocytes to produce and release immunoglobulins but also initiate and activate also T- lymphocytes to produce and releases CD4 and CD8 as a members of T lymphocytes which involved mainly in cell-mediated immune mechanism in human (Leszek et al.; 1999).

This work was summarize the clinical and nutritional role of bovine colostrum supplementation in human that serve effectively as health – promoting functional food due to its high effect in enhancement; modulation and improvement of general immunity of human through increase of the titer of immunity keys as immunoglobulins and lymphocytes in addition to its high contents of antimicrobial factors beside immunoglobulins and other complementary proteins (IDF. 1991 and Mee & Mhra 1995), therefore it is offering a potential protection against infectious pathogens in addition to providing a lot of nutritional; growth – promoting services (Brock et al.; 1978 and Akita & Chan 1998).

This work suggest and recommend also that it is of the nutritional benefits to focus on the production of wide ranges of bovine colostrum – containing or based foods to serve potentially in providing a support and enhancement for the immunity system specially for the infants and human categories and classes whose suffered from immunity diseases and shortage. It is highly suggested also to incorporate some of bovine colostrum biologically active constituents into the human foods to offer a lot of physiological benefits because many of colostrum proteins has a pronounced health and clinical benefits for human health and growth (Nord et al.; 1990, Rump et al.; 1992, Plettenberg et al.; 1993, swart 1998 and Ng et al.; 2001).

References

Akita, E. M. and Chan, L. E. C. (1998):

Isolation of bovine immunoglobulin G subclasses from milk, colostrum and whey using immobilized egg yolk antibodies. J. Dairy Sci. 81, 54 – 63.

Antonio, J.; Sandres, M. S. and Van Gammerens, D. (2000):

The effect of bovine colostrum supplementation on body composition and exercise performance in active men and women. Nutrition 17 (3): 243 – 247.

Brambell, F. W. (1969):

Transmission of immune globulin’s from mother to the fetal and newborn young. Prac. Nutr. Soc. 28, 35 – 41.

Brock, J. H.; Pineiro, A. and Lampreave, F. (1978):

The effect of trypsin and chymotrypsin of the antimicrobial activity of complement, antibodies, lactoferrin and transferrin in bovine colostrum. Ann. De Rech. Vèterin. 9:287.

Brown, W.R. (1978):

Relationship between immunoglobulin and intestinal epithelium. Gastroenterology 75: 129 – 138.

Butler, J. E. (1974):

Immunoglobulin of mammary secretion. In: Lactation, Comprehensive Treaties. Pp. 217 – 225 [ B.L. Larson V.L. Smith, editor]. Academic Press: New York.

Butler, J. E. (1986):

Biochemistry and biology of ruminant immunoglobulins: progress in Veterinary Microbiology and Immunology 2: 1 – 53.

Butler, J. E. (1994):

Passive immunity and immunoglobulin diversity. In: Indigenous Antimicrobial Agents of Milk – Recent Development. IDF (International Dairy Federation) Special Issue 9404 (4): 14 –50.Campbell, B. and Petersen, W. E. (1963):

Immune – Milk. A historical survey. Dairy Science Abstract 25: 345 – 358.

Carbonare, S. B.; Silva, M. L.; Palmeira, P. and Carmeiro – Sampaio, M. M. (1997):

Human colostrum IgA antibodies reacting to enteropathogenic Escherichia coli antigens and their persistence in the feces of breast-fed infant. J. Diarrhea Disease Research 15 (2): 53 – 58.

Castrucci, G.; Frigeri, F.; Ferrari, M.; Cilli, V.; Caleffi, F.; Aldrovandi, V. and Nigrelli, A. (1984):

The efficacy of colostrum from cows vaccinated with rotavirus in protecting calves to experimentally induced rotavirus infection. Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 7: 11 – 18.

Danvon, S. M. and Odle, J. (1994):

Growth factors in milk as mediators of infant development. Annu. Rev. Nutr. 14: 147 – 167.

Davdson, G. P. (1996):

Passive protection against diarrheal disease. J. Ped. Gastroint. Nutr. 23 : 207 – 212.

Goldmann, A.S. (1993):

The immune system of human milk: antimicrobial, antiinflamatory and immunomodulationg properties. Ped. Infect. Dis. J. 12 : 664 – 671.

Harmsen, M.C.; Swart, P. J.; Marie – Pierre, B.; Pauwels, S.; De Clercq, E.; Hauw, T. T. and Meijer, K. F. (1995):

Antiviral effects of plasma and milk proteins: Lactoferrin shows potent activity against Human Immunodeficiency virus and Human Cytomegalovirus replication in vitro. J. Infect. Dis. 172 : 380 – 388.

Isaccson, R. E.; Dean, E. A.; Morgan, R. L. and Moon, H. W. (1980): Immunization of suckling pigs against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli – induced diarrheal disease by vaccinating dams with purified K99 or 987P pili: antibody production in response to vaccination. Infection and immunity 29: 824 – 826.

Kelly, D. and Coutts, A. G. (2000):

Early nutrition and development of immune functions in the neonate. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 59 (2): 177 – 185.

Kelly, C. P.; Chetman, S.; Keates, S.; Bostwick, E.; Roush, M.; Castaglilo, I.; Lamant, J. J. and Pothaulakis, C. (1997):

Survival of anti-Clostridium difficile bovine immunoglobulin concentrate in the human gastrointestinal tract. Antimicrobial Agent and Chemotherapy 41: 236 – 241.

Korhonen, H.; Syväoja, E. L.; Ahola – Luttila, H.; Sivellä, S.; Kopola, S.; Husu, J. and Kosunen, T. U. (1995):

Bactericidal effect of bovine normal and immune serum, colostrum and milk against Helicobacter pylori. J. Appl. Bacter.. 78 : 655 – 662.

Korhonen, H.; Syväoja, E. L.; Vasara, E. I.; Kasunen, T. and Marnila, P. (1998):

Pharmaceutical composition, comprising complement proteins, for the treatment of Helicobacter infections and method for the preparation of the composition. PCT/F197/00418. Patent PCT – application No. W098/00150.

Korhonen, H.; Marnila, P. and Gill, H. S. (2000):

Bovine milk antibodies for health. Brit. J. Nutr. 48; Suppl. 1, S135 – S146.

Korhonen, H.; Marnila, P.; Pihlanto – Leppälä, A. and Ryhänen, E. L. (2001):

Bioactive components of milk: natural ingredients for health promotion. Innovations in Food Technology. Scandinavia, March 2001; 23 – 27.

Lamm, M. E.; Weisz, - Carrington, P.; Roux, M. e.; McWilliams, M. and Phillips – Quagliata, J. M. (1978):

Development of IgA system in the mammary gland. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 107, 35 – 42.

Larson, B.L. (1963):

Immunoglobulins of the mammary secretion. In: Advanced Dairy Chemistry I- proteins, pp. 231 – 254 [PF Fox, editors]. London: Elsevier Science publishers.

Lascelles, A. K. (1963):

A review of the literature on some aspects of immune milk. Dairy Sci. Abstr. 25: 359 – 364.

Lefranc – Millot, C.; Vercaigne – Marko, D.; Wal, J. M.; Lepertre, A.; Peltre, G.; Dhulster, P. and Guillochan, D. (1996):

Comparison of the IgE titers to bovine colostral G immunoglobulins and their F(ab)2 fragments in sera of patients allergic to milk. Int. Arch. Allerg. Imm. 110, 156 – 162.

Levay, P.F. and Viljoen, M. (1995):

lactoferrin: a general review. Haematologica 80; 252 – 267.

Leszek, J.; Inglot, A. D.; Janusz, M.; Lisowski, J.; Krukowska, K. and Georgiades, J. A. (1999):

Colostrinin: a proline – rich polypeptide (PRP) complex isolated from ovine colostrum for treatment Alzheimer’s disease. A double – blind, placebo – controlled study. Arch. Immunol. Ther. Exp. (Warsz) 47 (6): 377 – 385.

Lonnerdal, B. and Lyer, S. (1995):

Lactoferrin: molecular structure and biological function. Annl. Rev. Nutr. 15: 93 – 110.

McGee, D.W.; Aicher, W. K.; Eldridge, J. H.; Peppard, J. W.; Mestechy, J. and McGee, J. R. (1991):

Transformin Growth Factor – Beta enhances secretory component and major histocompatability complex class I antigen expression on rat IEC-6 intestinal epithelium cells. Cytokine 3: 543 – 550.

Mee, J. F and Mehra, R. (1995):

Efficacy of colostrum substitutes and supplements in farm animals. Agro Food Indust. Hi – Tech. 6: 31 – 35.

Mero, A.; Miikkulainen, H.; Rishi, J.; Pakkanen, R.; Aalto, J. and Takala, T. (1997):

Effects of bovine colostrum supplementation on serum IGF-I, IgG, hormone and saliva IgA during training. J. Appl. Physiolo. 83 (4): 1144 – 1158.

Mitra, A. K.; Mahalanabis, D.; Unicomb, L.; Eechels, R. and Tzipori, S. (1995):

Hyperimmune cow colostrum reduces diarrhea due to rotavirus: a double – blind, controlled clinical trial. Acta Paed. 84: 996 – 1001.

Moon, H. W. and Bunn, T. O. (1993):

Vaccines for preventing enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infections in farm animals. Vaccin 11 : 200 – 213.

Nerenberg, S. T. and Prasad, R. (1975):

Radioimmunoassay for Ig classes G, A, M, D and E in spinal fluids, normal values of different age groups. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 86: 887 – 898.

Ng, T. B.; Lam, T. L.; Au, T. K.; Ye, X. Y. and Wan, C. C. (2001): Inhibition of human Immunodeficiency virus type I reverse transcriptase, protease and integrase by bovine milk proteins. Life Sci. 69 (19): 2217 – 2223.

Nord, J.; Ma, P.; DiJohn, Di. Tzipori, S. and Tachet, C. O. (1990): Treatment with bovine hyperimmune colostrum of cryptosporidial diarrhea in AIDS patients. AIDS: 4: 581 – 584.

Petty, H. R. and Todd, R. F. (1993):

III Receptor – receptor interactions of complement receptor type 3 in neutrophil membranes. J. Leukocyte Biol. 54: 492 – 494.

Plettenberg, A.; Stoehr, A.; stellbrink, A.; Allrecht, h. and Meigel, W. (1993):

A preparation from bovine colostrum in the treatment of HIV – positive patients with chronic diarrhea. Clinc. Invest. 71: 42 – 45.

Quigle, J. D. and Drewry, J. J. (1998):

Nutrient and immunity transfer from cow to calf pre – and post-calving. J. Dairy Sci. 81: 2779 – 2790.

Reddy, N. R.; Roth, S. M.; Eigel, W. N. and Tacket, C. O. (1988):

Foods and food ingredients for prevention of diarrheal disease in children in developing countries. J. Food Protec. 51: 66 – 75.

Reiter, B. (1978):

Review of the progress of dairy science: antimicrobial systems in milk. J. Dairy Res. 45: 131 – 147.

Ross, N.; Nahè, S.; Benamouzig, R.; Sick, H.; Rautureau, J. and Tomè, D. (1995):

15 – N labeled immunoglobulins from bovine colostrum are partially resistant to digestion in human intestine. J. Nutr. 125: 1238 – 1244.

Rump, J. A.; Arndt, R. and Arndt, A. (1992):

Treatment of diarrhea in human Immunodeficiency virus infected patients with immunoglobulins from bovine colostrum. Clinc. Invest. 70: 588 0 594.

Sabin, C. A. et al.; (1994):

Br. J. Haematology. 86: 366 – 371.

Sánchez, L.; Clavo, M. and Brock, J. H. (1992):

Biological role of lactoferrin. Arch. Dis. Child. 67: 657 – 661.

Schaller, J. P.; Saif, L. J.; Cordle, C.T.; Candler, E. J.; Winship, T.R. and Smith, K. L. (1992):

Prevention of human rotavirus – induced diarrhea in gnotobiotic piglets using bovine antibody. J. Infec. Dis 165: 623 – 630.

Snodgrass, D. R.; Nagy, L. K.; Sherwood, D. and Campbell, I. (1982): Passive immunity in calf diarrhea: vaccination with K99 antigen of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and rotavirus. Infec. Immunolog. 37: 586 – 591.

Statgraphic Program (1987):

Statistical Graphic System Version 2.6.

Stephan, W.; Dichtelmüller, H. and Lissner, R. (1990):

Antibodies from colostrum in oral immunotherapy. J. Clinc. Chem. Clinc. Biochem. 28: 19 – 23.

Sutterwala, F. S.; Rosenthal, L. A. and Moser, D. M. (1996):

Corporation between CR1 (CD35) and CR3 (CD11b/CD18) in the binding of complement – opsonized particles. J. Leuck. Biol. 59: 883 – 890.

Swart, P. J.; Kuipers, M. E.; Smit, C.; van der Strate, B. W. A.; Harmsen, M. C. and Meijer, D. K. F. (1998):

Lactoferrin: antiviral activity of lactoferrin, P. 205 – 213. In : G. Spik, D. Legrand, J. Mazurier, A. Pierce and J. Perraudin (eds.); Advanced in lactoferrin research. Plenum Press. New York.

Taylor, B. C.; Dellinger, J. D.; Cullor, J. S. and Stott, J. L. (1994):

Bovine milk lymphocytes display the phenotype of memory T cells and are predominantly CD8. Cell Immunol. 156: 245 – 253.

Tsunemitsu, H.; Shimizu, M.; Hirai, T.; Yanemichi, H.; Kudo, T.; Mori, K. and Onoes, S. (1089):

Protection against bovine rotavirus in new – born calves by continuos feeding of human colostrum. Nippon Juigaku zasshi. 51 ; 300 – 308

Vignali, D. A. and Strominger, J. L. (1994):

Immunologist. 2 (4); 112 – 118.

Warny, M.; Fatimi, A.; Bostwick, E. F.; Laine, D. C.; Lebel, F.; LaMont, J. T.; Pothoulakis, C. and Kelly, C. P. C. (1999):

Bovine immunoglobulin concentrate – Clostridium difficile retains C. difficile toxin neutralizing activity after passage through the human stomach and small intestine. Gut. 44 (2): 212 – 217.

Zaremba, W.; Guterbock, W. M. and Holmberg, C. A. (1993):

Efficacy of a dried colostrum powder in the prevention of disease in neonatal Holstein calves. J. Dairy Sci. 76: 831 – 836.

Zinkernagel, R. M.; Hilpert, H. and Gerber, H. (1972):

The digestion of colostral bovine immunoglobulins in infants. Experientia 28: 741.


The above statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.

Copyright 2007, Synertek Colostrum. All Rights Reserved.
Site designed by Local Creative.